Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition where the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. It is a common health problem that affects people of all ages and can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Here are some key points about hypertension:

1. Causes: Hypertension can be caused by various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, such as poor diet and lack of exercise, obesity, stress, underlying medical conditions like kidney disease or hormonal disorders and certain medications.

2. Symptoms: Hypertension is often referred to as the “silent killer” because it typically does not cause noticeable symptoms until it reaches a severe stage. Some people may experience symptoms like headaches, dizziness, chest pain, shortness of breath and nosebleeds, but these are not specific to hypertension and can occur due to other causes too.

3. Complications: If left untreated or uncontrolled, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, vision loss and even cognitive decline.

4. Diagnosis: Blood pressure measurements are used to diagnose hypertension. Normal blood pressure is typically around 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension is classified into different stages based on blood pressure readings. It is important to have regular check-ups and monitor blood pressure to detect any abnormalities.

5. Treatment: Hypertension can be managed through lifestyle modifications and medication. Some lifestyle changes that can help include maintaining a healthy weight, following a balanced diet low in sodium and high in fruits and vegetables, regular physical activity, limiting alcohol consumption, quitting smoking, managing stress and getting enough sleep. Medications, such as diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers may also be prescribed by a healthcare professional when necessary.

It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and to develop a treatment plan tailored to specific needs.