An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops on one of the ovaries, the reproductive
organs responsible for egg production. The majority of ovarian cysts are noncancerous or

There are various types of ovarian cysts, with functional cysts being the most common. These
cysts form during the monthly ovulation process and typically resolve on their own within a
few months. The two main types of functional cysts are follicle cysts, which result from the
failure of the egg-containing follicle to rupture, and corpus luteum cysts, which develop after
ovulation when the remaining follicle fills with fluid.

Other types of ovarian cysts include endometriomas, associated with endometriosis and
capable of causing pain; dermoid cysts, rare cysts containing tissues like hair, skin, or teeth;
and cystadenomas, benign tumors that can grow large.

Symptoms of ovarian cysts may include pelvic pain, especially during or after sex,
menstruation, or bowel movements, bloating, abdominal pressure, irregular periods, and
difficulties with pregnancy.

Diagnosis is done using an ultrasound, while additional tests like CA-125 blood tests or MRI
scans may be utilized to identify the cyst type and rule out other conditions.

Treatment depends on factors such as cyst size, symptoms, and potential for malignancy.
While many cysts resolve on their own and may only require monitoring, larger or
symptomatic cysts may be addressed through hormonal therapy, which can prevent new cysts
from forming, or through surgery. Laparoscopic surgery, a minimally invasive procedure, is
commonly employed to remove cysts, and in some cases, the removal of one or both ovaries
may be necessary.