Hematology is a branch of pathology science that deals with the study of
blood components such as red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets, and
plasma. Also deals with the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and study of diseases
related blood cells and plasma. There are many diseases that are related from
blood itself

Haematology is originated from Greek words haima(blood),ology(study of).
These diseases can originate or affect any of blood cells, bone marrow,blood
vessels and coagulation.

The main components of blood and medical conditions are as follows:

Red Blood Cells: It transports oxygen to the tissues.

White Blood cells: It protects body against infection.

Platelets: It helps to stop bleeding.

Plasma: It reserves proteins and performs several other functions.

Blood diseases that affect RBC are:

Anemia- The body has a low level of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

Pernicious Anaemia – Vitamin B12 deficiency – prohibits absorbing B12 from

Aplastic Anaemia– Bone marrow does not produce adequate blood cells,
mainly RBC.

Sickle cell anemia– A genetic disorder that makes the RBC crumples into
sickle shape.

Polycythaemia Vera– The body produces too many Red blood cells that may
cause blood concentration and blood clot.

Thalassemia – A genetic disease with features of severe anemia, that often
need a regular blood transfusion to survive.

Classifications of Thalassemia

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia – The body’s overactive immune system
destroys its red blood cells.

Malaria – An infection caused by the plasmodium group of parasites that enters
the bloodstream through a vector (mosquito bite) that makes RBC s burst.

Blood diseases that affect WBC are:

a. Leukaemia – A type of blood cancer due to increasing production of
White blood cells.

b. Lymphoma – A type of malignant blood cancer originating in the
lymphatic system.

c. Multiple myelomas – Another type of blood cancer that affects the
white blood plasma.

d. Myelodysplastic syndrome – A group of blood cancer that affects the
bone marrow.

Blood diseases that affect platelets are:

a. Thrombocytopenia – Decreasing number of platelets in blood.

b. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – Onset of the above disease due
to unknown cause.

c. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia– Due to the reaction against

d. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia – A low platelet count due to the blood
clot in blood vessels.

e. Thrombocytosis – Production of excessive platelets causing a clot and or

Blood diseases that affect plasma are:

a. Haemophilia
– A genetically inducing factor deficiency that causes
severe blood clot.

b. Von Will brand disease – A type of haemophilia that might result in the
excessive bleeding due to an injury or surgery.

c. Hypercoagulable state – A condition that often results in blood clot and
needs anticoagulant therapy on regular basis.

d. Deep venous thrombosis – Blood clot in deep vein of the leg that can
even travel to lung or heart.

e. DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation – A condition that causes
multiple tiny clots throughout the body.

Most of the diseases can be treated effectively if diagnosed on time. Read More