Haematology is a branch of pathology science which deals with the study of blood components such as red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets and plasma. Also deals with diagnosis, prevention, treatment and study of diseases related blood cells and plasma. There are many diseases that are related from blood itself

 Haematology is originated from Greek words haima (blood), ology (study of).

These diseases can originate or affect any of blood cells, bone marrow, blood vessels and coagulation.

The main components of blood and medical conditions are as follows:

Red Blood Cells: It transport oxygen to the tissues.

White Blood cells: It protect body against infection.

Platelets: It helps to stop bleeding.

Plasma: It reserves proteins and performs several other functions.

Blood diseases that affect RBC are:

Anaemia – The body have low level of red blood cells and haemoglobin.

Pernicious Anaemia – Vitamin B12 deficiency – prohibit to absorb B12 from diet.

Aplastic Anaemia– Bone marrow does not produce adequate blood cells, mainly RBC.

Sickle cell anaemia– A genetic disorder that makes the RBC crumple into sickle shape. 

Polycythaemia Vera –   The body produces too many Red blood cells that may cause blood concentration and blood clot. 

Thalassemia – A genetic disease with features of severe anaemia, that often need a regular blood transfusion to survive.

Classification of Thalassemia are depended up on case study. 

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia – The body’s overactive immune system destroys its red blood cells.

Malaria – An infection caused by plasmodium group of parasites that enters the blood stream through a vector (mosquito bite) that makes RBC s burst.

Blood diseases that affect WBC are:

  1. Leukaemia – A type of blood cancer due to increasing production of White blood cells.
  2. Lymphoma – A type of malignant blood cancer originating in the lymphatic system.
  3. Multiple myelomas – Another type of blood cancer which affects the white blood plasma.
  4. Myelodysplastic syndrome – A group of blood cancer which affects the bone marrow.

Blood diseases that affect platelets are: 

  1. Thrombocytopenia – Decreasing number of platelets in blood.
  2. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – Onset of the above disease due to unknown cause.
  3. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia – Due to the rection against heparin.
  4. Thrombotic thrombocytopenia – A low platelet count due to the blood clot in blood vessels.
  5. Thrombocytosis – Production of excessive platelets causing a clot and or bleeding.

Blood diseases that affect plasma are:

  1. Haemophilia – A genetically inducing factor deficiency that causes severe blood clot.
  2. Von Will brand disease – A type of haemophilia that might result in the excessive bleeding due to an injury or surgery.
  3. Hypercoagulable state – A condition that often results in blood clot and needs anticoagulant therapy on regular basis.
  4. Deep venous thrombosis – Blood clot in deep vein of the leg that can even travel to lung or heart.
  5. DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation – A condition that causes multiple tiny clots throughout the body.

Most of the diseases can be treated effectively if diagnosed on time.